Which Data Related Majors Are Right For You?

Data Related Majors

In this age of information overload, we need a new class of experts that can extract actionable knowledge from huge amounts of data. It is important to consider this as you decide on an undergraduate major.

You can start to build your skills by participating in relevant extracurricular activities and coding programs while in college. Also, consider taking a course like Data Science for Everyone.

Educational Programs Abroad

With a growing focus on big data, students with a background in statistics or computer science have many career options in this rapidly developing field. A degree in data science can lead to work in virtually any field and offers a broad base of skills that can be applied to a wide range of problems.

The major introduces approaches and techniques that are widely applicable to quantitative analyses in almost every discipline. Courses explore the foundations of data science, as well as more advanced topics such as computational methods for data analysis; statistical machine learning and linear algebra; data visualization; and more.

A data science minor is a great option for students interested in gaining a more comprehensive understanding of this exciting field. Students who are considering a minor should consult their education abroad advisor to ensure that courses taken abroad will be counted toward the minor. Some programs may also offer unique, project-based internship opportunities for students to gain real-world experience in their area of interest.


Statistics is a science that focuses on collecting, classifying and representing data to facilitate further analysis and understanding of underlying trends. It can also help you to make better business decisions. Statistics are used in virtually every sector — from human resources and finance to marketing and supply chain management.

A degree in statistics is a good option if you want to build the skills necessary to interpret and analyze data sets. You can use your statistical analysis skills to make informed decisions, which is crucial in any field.

Prior to the emergence of data science as an interdisciplinary field, students would typically earn a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, engineering or computer science to develop skills needed to work with complex datasets. However, as demand for specialized majors has grown, some universities are now offering a designated undergraduate major in data science. These degrees provide a rigorous program of study that prepares students for careers at the intersection of computer science, statistics and mathematics.

Computer Science

Computer science is a good choice for strong, logical thinkers who are eager to contribute to innovative research that boosts cybersecurity or creates virtual reality. In this field, you can work as a computer programmer, information systems analyst or software engineer, among other positions.

This major teaches you how to analyze information and develop computer models of it, which are used in strategic segments of today’s economy and society. You can choose a scientific focus on algorithms and systems for organizing, accessing and processing information or an interdisciplinary approach that examines the use of technology in areas such as economics or health.

This option combines the study of computer theory with management skills to prepare you for a career in business and technology. You may also have the opportunity to specialize in areas such as cybersecurity, data science and business entrepreneurship. This major is offered at the bachelor’s and master’s degree levels.

Data Science

Data science is a multidisciplinary field that involves a fusion of analytical methods, domain expertise, and technology. It uses statistical analysis, data mining, forecasting, machine learning, text analytics, and predictive analytics to uncover insights that a company may not have even known they had.

Its use across industries is widespread. Financial services companies use it to detect fraudulent transactions, manage risk on loans and credit cards, and identify upselling opportunities. Healthcare providers use it to automate X-ray analysis and assist doctors in diagnosis, while manufacturers employ it to optimize production and supply chain management.

Students in this undergraduate major will gain critical skill sets in the areas of statistics, computing, and mathematics. They will also learn how to apply computational, mathematical, and statistical comprehension and tools to real world problems in any discipline. The program is a great option for students with diverse career interests, and it can prepare them to pursue graduate study in a direction that involves data in a significant way.

How to set up and share your data room virtual in minutes

software set up

Data room virtual software is presently a basic tool for organizations of various levels. M&A data rooms are being utilized by any affiliation that is necessities to circulate delicate or prohibitive data.

How would you set up a data room?

A data room is just distributed storage, so you can assemble a data room that is either basic or adds layers of usefulness. Obviously, you can generally purchase space on the cloud and heap data into it, however, there are suppliers out there explicitly centered around data spaces for organizations.

These suppliers will give you admittance to formats, permit you to oversee and sort your records more straightforward, give various individuals simple access and talk with one another. It is similar to those evaluators and bookkeepers, considers examination and following, and gives a solid climate from digital dangers. In numerous ways, how you are treating contracting one of these suppliers is professionalizing your data to dazzle likely financial backers. The data will not be unique, however, it’ll be more straightforward to ‘sell’.

Bit by bit manual for utilizing a data room

The point of interaction and elements of various virtual data rooms may vary from one another.

  • Gather the data you will use in the data room virtual software.
  • Add your colleagues or customers to client gatherings.
  • Set authorizations and NDAs. Change who can download, view, alter or share reports, and set managers.
  • Add records. You can likewise alter them as you wish with the apparatuses that the data room offers.
  • Check everything two times before the principal uses it.

Like some other essentially new thing, it tends to be hard to bounce into utilizing data room programming. In any case, these bothers are transitory and worth the work. All things considered, the security and adaptability you receive consequently will permit you to be quiet with regards to the security of your data and permit you to zero in on the more significant things.

Advantages of using a VDR

The primary benefits of utilizing data room software for business are:

  • decrease of occurrences connected with spillage and compromise of organization data;
  • diminishing the expense of examining episodes – the historical backdrop of crafted by every representative is put away with every individual archive;
  • the executives of admittance to organization data, any place they are (DRM). Capacity to repudiate recently conceded privileges;
  • probability of programmed checking of records stacked into the framework;
  • a solitary web interface for dealing with every one of the framework’s capacities;
  • quick mix with AD and DLP frameworks. Discretionary capacity to incorporate with outsider data frameworks;
  • straightforwardness and accommodation of day by day use – there is no requirement for staff preparing;
  • the simplicity of arrangement and support of the framework in the client’s foundation.

The initial step is to gather extra data: a conversation with partners, different partners in the organization, looking through the Internet, partaking in meetings, acquiring data from equipment and programming merchants, from integrators. Propels in the most recent data innovation make any general public exceptionally defenseless. Every leap forward of humankind into the future doesn’t liberate it from the weight of previous slip-ups and annoying issues. 

Assuming that we continue from the old-style thought of the computerized model of any controlled framework, the upsetting impacts on it very well may be arbitrary.

How to Apply For an Exchange Program

Exchange Program

An exchange program is a type of student travel, where one student attends another institution for a certain amount of time. The program allows students to study abroad and gain valuable work experience. It can also help students find a new career. If you’re interested in studying abroad, this might be the perfect opportunity for you. The programs vary in length and cost and can include both short and long-term stays. However, if you choose the right one, you’ll likely benefit from a variety of different experiences.

To apply for an exchange program, you must first find an institution that offers an academically challenging exchange program. If you are a full-time undergraduate, you can apply for a partnership through your home campus’s NSE coordinator. This coordinator will help you complete the application process and determine if you’re suitable for nomination. The application includes three recommendation forms, an English language proficiency test, a goal statement for the exchange, and biographical data.

In order to apply for an exchange program, you must first receive a nomination from your home institution. Your home university’s study abroad advisor can submit a nomination for you. Once you have this form completed, the host institution will send you the necessary materials. This will include an online application, institutional admissions form, and enrollment information. You must complete all of these materials by the deadlines. You can apply for a one-term exchange or an entire academic year. Some campuses also allow summer exchanges.

Once you have been nominated by your home institution, the next step is to complete the application process. You must apply to the university that is offering the program you want to attend. The NSE coordinator will contact your home campus to see if you qualify. The application process includes a non-refundable $150 fee to the NSE consortium headquarters, three recommendation forms, biographical data, and an essay about your desire to study abroad. You will then be given instructions on how to complete this process.

In order to apply for an exchange program, you must be in good academic standing at your home university. The NSE coordinator will check your transcripts and other documents for a foreign language requirement and will submit your application to the NSE consortium headquarters. You must also meet the required GPA, language requirements, and any other term-requirements to participate in an exchange program. In order to apply for an exchange, you must contact the campus coordinator at your home university.

To apply for a NSE exchange, you must be nominated by your home campus. Then, the NSE coordinator at the host university will help you complete the application process. If you qualify, the NSE coordinator will send you a non-refundable $150 fee to the NSE consortium headquarters. In addition to completing the application form, you must provide your transcripts. It is important to send all materials to the host university as early as possible.

How to Deal with Exchange University Application

Exchange University Application

The most important factor in selecting an exchange program is the applicant’s grades. Not only does a high grade indicate a strong interest in learning, but it also shows that an applicant is well-prepared to benefit from the program in another country. In addition, the deciding committee needs assurances that the applicant will represent the country well. A student’s academic record is a crucial part of this process. Fortunately, a good GPA will not be the only factor in deciding whether an applicant is qualified to attend a particular university.

The process for applying to an exchange program is easy. Applicants must be full-time undergraduate students at an institution that has a student exchange agreement with the participating university. Contact the campus’ NSE coordinator to verify whether the exchange program is active. To apply for an exchange, a student must have a minimum 3.0 grade point average on a 4.0 scale and must earn a “B” grade in all courses. The applicant must also have at least one year of university study prior to the start of the exchange. The application requires the applicant to submit 3 recommendation forms, a goal statement for the exchange, biographical data, and a $150 nonrefundable fee to the NSE consortium headquarters.

To participate in an exchange program, international students must be nominated by their home university. The home university must pay for the participation fee, and the student may choose to study at a university in another country. The exchange program can be an excellent way to experience a different culture while enhancing your education. If you are interested in learning more about this amazing opportunity, contact the International Office of the USGS. They will be more than happy to help you with the application process.

The exchange program coordinator will coordinate with the In-bound Exchange Advisor to submit a list of in-bound students and contact you with the list. Once you have the list of in-bound students, the Office of International Education will apply an Exchange Waiver to each of them each semester. If the applicant is accepted, the Office of International Education will transfer the funds into the student’s account. This waived tuition will be applied to the student’s account during the respective semester.

To apply for an exchange program, it is a good idea to contact your university’s student counsellor. They can provide you with information on the requirements for the program and help you prepare your profile in order to maximize your chances of acceptance. The university counsellor can also help you prepare for the application process by offering suggestions to improve your chances of acceptance. Since each exchange program is different, the counselor can help you create the perfect profile for the best results.

The USF study abroad office will be the main contact for the exchange program. The exchange program director will provide the student with a letter of approval from their university. If you are accepted, the admissions office will make contact with your home university. The office will also discuss the eligibility requirements and other requirements of the exchange program. A successful application for an exchange program will allow you to travel to the desired country as part of your studies. Once you’ve chosen a program, make sure to discuss the details with your academic advisors.

Data room services and what to expect from this tool

software solution

Technologies… What comes to your mind when you hear this word?  Definitely, changes, but can be both positive and negative. In order to not to waste time and make an informed choice from the first time. We have prepared profound information about data room services, financial transactions, provider services, and M&A dealmakers. Are you ready to make the first steps into additional companies development?

To begin with, data room services are one of the most common tools that can be used among a wide range of companies. It consists of different tools that can make the corporation’s working routine more developed. The most crucial data room services are the ability to control the whole working routine, simplify the operation with various assignments, and help to secure all working processes. These are the main elements that you need to pay the most attention to. Open further data room services that will be beneficial for all corporations.

Another crucial moment is financial transactions, as the foremost aspect is to have income from all business transactions that employees need to work on. For this reason, it exists particular financial transactions that will be suitable for every customer and company that has collaborative work. Financial transactions are, in other words, an agreement between the company and clients. Use the most fitting financial transaction for all sides and have everything on time without any difficulties.

Provider services and directors’ choice.

Nowadays, it is crucial to use only advanced technologies that will stimulate business owners and employees to have the most appropriate for usage. It exists special provider services that help to organize the whole working performance. Besides, every employee will have the opportunity to structuralize their performance and divide every task according to priorities. Provider services focus mainly on the assignments and present valuable tips and tricks on how to go to the incredible length using its resources for maximum. It is possible to implement three types of provider services, but only directors make the final choice which is better in usage. In order to do this, it is recommended to follow several steps. Firstly, you have to define the market and focus on the customer. Secondly, it is relevant to understand clients’ needs and identify all outcomes. Thirdly, define opportunities.

M&A dealmaker is another one of the most modern technologies that offer only highly-advanced support for the whole business. It will help to cover various deals that are important for employees. Besides, it strengthens the working conditions and presents all required techniques for a healthy working environment.

In all honesty, have only the best tips and tricks for your work. This information will help you to develop your knowledge and use them appropriately. Try various techniques in your working routine.

The Benefits of Exchange Programs

A student exchange program is an exchange program where students from an accredited secondary school or university travel to one of the partner universities. In Australia, a student exchange program refers to a program where university students travel to another participating tertiary educational establishment. The primary goal of a student exchange program between two or more participating Australian universities is professional development for students in a particular field. There are several types of exchange programs between Australian universities and overseas colleges. The primary types are described below.

Exchange programs between Australian universities may be arranged either on a full-time or part-time basis. Under full-time arrangement, students spend a fixed number of academic terms in another participating country, usually over two semesters. During this time, both students maintain their Australian academic status. Part time student exchange programs allow the students to engage in part-time study in another country while also maintaining their Australian academic status.

An exchange student exchange program allows you to make valuable connections and experiences that will stay with you when you return home. You will have access to a new environment, different work and study opportunities, and a variety of other cultural experiences that you may not have had when you were studying at your home university. You can build up valuable international network once you return home. Exchanges can also strengthen your ties to your home university community.

An exchange student exchange program enables you to gain a greater understanding of a new country while still maintaining your Australian citizenship. This provides you with the flexibility and choice to complete your studies in the way that suits you best. You are not restricted to enrolling in courses and programs that are offered at your university. Instead, you can choose the appropriate courses and subjects that best meet your goals and circumstances. Your education is also less disrupted if you choose to study abroad rather than at your university.

Many students have found great success by participating in exchange programs. For many, this experience was vital to enhancing their education and career prospects. Others have taken advantage of exchange programs in order to enjoy an exciting summertime experience that they would not have otherwise had on their own. The benefits you can gain from participating in a student exchange program are almost endless. If you are considering going back to university but are unsure which courses to take, or whether you should enroll in a university near you or overseas, consider an exchange program first.

Participating in exchange programs allows you to expose yourself to a new culture. You can gain a greater understanding of the various beliefs and practices unique to your native country. You may also meet university and fellow student peers that you would not normally have the opportunity to interact with. This can help boost your self-confidence in terms of your academic achievements and your career aspirations. You can build your self-confidence by showcasing your talents and abilities to an international audience of professionals and natives alike.

Another benefit of exchange programs is that it provides an opportunity for cultural exchange. Participating in a student exchange program allows you to expose yourself to a new way of life. While you are studying in your home country, you may be surrounded by many native customs and foods. An exchange program allows you to experience these customs and foods in a foreign country – which allows you to embrace a whole new way of life.

Another reason why participating in an exchange program can benefit your education is that it helps you develop your local language skills. It will allow you to better communicate with your peers, your professors, and people you come into contact with throughout your years at university. When you study a language outside of your country of origin, you often don’t realize the importance of speaking and writing in your own language. Exchanging your local language with a native speaker can strengthen your fluency in that language and increase your self-confidence in gaining higher degrees.

Exchanging Knowledge With Exchange Programs Abroad

A student exchange program means a kind of international student exchange program in which a student temporarily moves to another country for academic study. Usually, the student traveling to a different country is either a national or legal permanent resident of this country. There are a number of reasons why an individual would want to participate in such an exchange program. It may be required for higher education purposes, such as for a post-high school education in a different country. Other times, an individual who is not attending college may use a student exchange program to earn college credit or even get a job in the country offering the study abroad program.

One reason that people participate in a student exchange program abroad is to expand their horizons. Participants are able to travel the world and broaden their appreciation of various cultures and communities. When students travel abroad, they are expanding their comfort zone and experiencing something new every time.

Students who participate in exchange programs are usually studying in a foreign university or college. The majority of these students are studying in an area of study that aligns with their major field of study at the college where they are enrolled. There are times, however, when students from a particular university or college are enrolled in exchange programs outside the school they are studying in. If you have an interest in studying abroad but are not currently a full time student in your desired university or college, you may want to consider getting a Student Exchange Visa.

Student exchanges create valuable exposure to a new culture and increase awareness of another’s culture. For example, students who travel abroad will likely have an opportunity to go to events honoring soldiers, participate in soccer tournaments, and visit museums and monuments that have historical significance for the nation that they are visiting. This exposure creates invaluable knowledge about a country and its people. By participating in exchange programs, students are also given an opportunity to experience a new culture and cuisine. The experiences that students gain is invaluable and can serve as a stepping-stone to their future goals in their academic fields.

Participating in an exchange program allows a student to broaden his or her cultural horizons. There are a variety of exchange programs available, depending on the country you wish to study in. You can study in the United Kingdom, South Korea, Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, New Zealand, South Africa, and more. In some cases, you can even study in one of the world’s most famous universities – Harvard University.

Each country has different regulations regarding student exchange programmes. Before you begin your course, check out the requirements for the host country. These regulations can differ between countries, so it is important to know exactly what you can expect before you enroll in a university or college abroad. Generally speaking, a degree from a different country requires you to get at least ten hours of lecture time every week, as well as the completion of a specific number of credit hours. The amount of time you need to study varies according to the length of your course and the GPA requirements for each course.

Some exchange programs allow students to bring their family members with them while they study in their host country. This helps families cope with the culture gap, while still being able to live in a familiar environment. Other exchanges create friendships between students who are participating in the same courses. Interacting with other participants who share similar interests can help participants nurture long-term relationships, resulting in a smarter and broader education.

A large number of companies in the US and other countries offer exchange programs for their employees. These programs allow exchange students to experience the life of another culture, while gaining valuable first-language skills that they can use back home. Many exchange students stay in host countries for three to four months, immersing themselves in the local culture and language. They can go on to work in different countries, continue their studies, and return to the United States full of knowledge and an enriched view of life. If you’re an exchange student, or know one, getting an exchange invitation is an important step in making an exciting new future.

A guide to University admission process for undergraduates

Researching the various options open to you in terms of your university application makes an important first step to your university application. This is determined by several factors, such as admission requirements, financial considerations, other considerations, and subjects and courses currently available. Even the data room that you choose for applying online documents makes a deal. 

University admissions decisions depend largely on grades, so you must do your homework.

High school graduates with good grades will have a better chance of getting into the college of their choice. Applicants with average or below-average grades often have a hard time getting into the college of their choice, so you must do your research. Researching before applying to a university is just as important as doing it once you have been accepted. You can gain valuable information about which colleges and universities give high marks to high school graduates.

Some students who do not excel in science and math find it extremely difficult to get into top-tier research universities like Harvard and Cambridge because these institutions require extremely high grades. For this reason, applicants with an acceptable grade average in subjects like English, history, and math but terrible grades in subjects like science and reading should consider writing an essay detailing their personal accomplishments, as well as their reasons for wanting to go to such highly selective universities. These reasons should entirely be coherent with their overall application and should include aspects of their personal life that contribute to their overall aptitude for learning.

Types of examinations for applicants

There are several types of examinations that applicants may be required to take to complete their admissions to a specific university.

Like the GMAT and GRE, some of these examinations can be taken on campus by the institutions that offer admission to a particular university. Other examinations are administered outside of the university at outside academic institutions or by other businesses.

Those who will be required to take the GRE and other standardized tests must first apply to a centralized testing center. Applicants can choose from four different centers: The University of Michigan – College of Engineering, The Ohio State University – Columbus campus, the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill campus, or the California State University at San Francisco. Once accepted to a centralized testing center, they will receive official GRE and SAT scores. Applicants then have thirty days to either submit their GRE scores or wait to take them at any other time. In cases where scores are received after the deadline, they must complete the process of sending in their GRE scores along with any other additional materials they have been requested to submit via mail.

State and local laws govern public university admissions, and a prospective student will need to look into these laws before choosing which school to apply to. Some states require public university admission based on grades and test scores, while others do not. Students interested in earning a degree at a public university should visit the university’s website for more information regarding admission requirements.

In addition to the SAT and GMAT, prospective students must also submit college admission tests such as the College Board’s Test of English as a Foreign Language (TWEL) and the National Association for College Admission Counseling (NAACACAP). These two tests can be the difference between acceptance and rejection. The TWEL is given three years before each applicant’s matriculation. The NAACP examination is given to high school students who wish to apply to the college level. Some colleges and universities have special enrollment programs that allow incoming first-year students to skip undergraduate admissions and begin their higher education journey immediately for students who wish to go beyond the undergraduate level.

Before choosing an institution to attend, prospective students should also look into the details of each university’s application requirements. Every college and university has slightly different admissions requirements, but most demand a certain number of credits per year. For example, many schools require students to declare their major upon arriving at the campus, and some only require a minimum GPA for incoming Freshman applicants. Students should always contact the admissions office at each potential school to determine the exact requirements for admission.

Study Abroad and Get a Degree

studying technology

Features of Higher Education in America

Studying in the States is prestigious, and getting a degree in America has many prospects for Americans and international students.
Higher education in the United States consists of three stages. This is a bachelor’s, master’s and, of course, graduate school. Having already overcome the first step, you can be sure of getting an education in this country. So a graduate, having a bachelor’s diploma in his hands, can look for work in his specialty here.
Already a new stage – the master – is focused on a detailed deepening of knowledge in the chosen field or a change in specialization is supposed. The title of a doctor allows you to teach and gives access to scientific research.

Bachelor Features in America

As soon as yesterday’s student will have a certificate of complete secondary education, he can apply to the university. Undergraduate studies last no longer than four years. Moreover, as a rule, it is not at all necessary to immediately choose a future specialty. If you want, you can decide in one or two years.
Education in modern American universities involves independence and takes place here according to individual plans. To obtain a bachelor’s degree, you need to dial lecture hours and seminars.
All American universities that provide a 4-year bachelor’s degree program are called colleges. And universities have graduate and graduate programs.
Another of the features of higher education in the United States is the division of educational institutions into private and public. Between themselves, such institutions are very different. So, there are a lot more students in government, and the price of training is lower than in private.
In American universities, many foreign students study. The desire to study foreigners in America can be understood, since the diploma of an American university is a guarantee of getting a well-paid job in your country. In addition, students abroad have the opportunity to remain working in America after graduation. Of course, provided that it turns out to find a company that will deal with the issuance of a work visa.
A student exchange program can be a great option for those wishing to study in America.

Storing information in a virtual data room

The topic of higher education in America often becomes interesting material for various meetings and conferences. When preparing for upcoming events, it’s convenient to use the virtual boardroom of the directors. Portals of the board of directors may be especially relevant in the work of companies and private entrepreneurs. Discussing important issues and holding a board meeting online anywhere in the world is the best idea for executives and all business people.
Professional providers can help you install software for boardrooms. Experienced specialists will quickly install the software of the management board and board of directors by https://boardsoftware.net.
A comparison of board portal portals with other services demonstrates the benefits of a virtual data room. The portal of the board of directors has reliable software, as experienced data room providers work with the service.

Data Room: How Data Room Providers Can Help Educational Institutions

upload documetns via dataroom

A few decades ago, the mass digitization of the world began, and since then, our vocabulary has been replenished with a bunch of new terms related to the technological revolution. And since the digital world is already a reality, the dangers around are also becoming electronic. This is the reason why people started paying attention to reliable cloud storage, such as a virtual data room. Virtual Data Room Providers have built such systems to store any critical data in an organized manner.

The interesting thing is that not only people from the business world use virtual data room services. Representatives of different niches have already appreciated the benefits of a virtual room. And it is time for educational institutions. At first glance, the first association that comes up with the word “VDR” is the M&A data room. However, in practice, a completely different picture emerges.

The link between VDR and education

It is essential for any educational institution that all documentation is well organized. Everyone who dreams of studying abroad or specifically pursuing a degree in America wants to make sure that all the documentation is stored in a safe place and that financial transactions take place with the participation of only the necessary parties. Such documents may include even the most common application to the university.

When the choice of training has already been made, and the documents have been submitted, it remains to wait for the start of practice. In the meantime, the task of the educational institution is to ensure that all documents are kept safe. However, let’s not forget that investors who cooperate with universities also want to know that the institution is doing the right thing and should value security and privacy.

Virtual data room software are essential factors.

The documents are securely protected.

From the moment you upload specific documents to your virtual room, you can be sure everything is in order. Data room providers focus on privacy and data security. That is why this technology offers a product that encrypts valuable user data. If all the documentation were stored in paper form, it would only be impossible to organize the workflow over time. The digital option, in this case, is a very practical solution.

Investors can view files anywhere, anytime.

This data room is also a unique opportunity for investors to view all the documentation they need from anywhere in the world at any time. If this is an exchange program, for example, and one can make sure that the money invested has gone where it is needed and is spent properly, then you can always review the reporting of all transactions.

Quality cooperation between the parties.

Virtual data rooms are also about quality cooperation between all parties. Often, some questions may arise as you review your documents and references. Therefore, participants must be able to chat live and solve all problems immediately. An M&A data room will be particularly useful if one of the investors decides to move to a more severe level of collaboration with the educational institution or one of the participants.